Some would say that Harry Potter is a Bildungsroman story, about the growth of the protagonist (Harry) from childhood to adulthood. Others argue that it is a fantasy story containing a quest, magical powers and an Other World. Many include Harry Potter in the boarding school genre of stories with lessons, school houses, rule-breaking and friendships all playing an important part in the stories. The Harry Potter books encompass all of these things, but at the very core of the story is the connection, the struggle and the looming battle between Tom Riddle and Harry Potter.
While representing the two polarities of good and evil, the two characters share many similar experiences and have many things in common from the circumstances of their childhoods, their school years at Hogwarts, their relationships with peers and friends, and their personality traits. It goes without saying that there are also many differences which set them apart but take away the roughly fifty years that separate them in age, and you will see that J.K. Rowling has given us a hero and a villain who are remarkably similar. The similarities and differences between them mean that one is almost a mirror image of the other. They share enough things in common to appear to be the same person, and yet the differences between them show us that they have chosen different paths in life.
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets gives us the first direct link and comparison between these two characters with Tom Riddle stating:
There are strange likenesses between us, Harry Potter. Even you must have noticed. Both half-bloods, orphans, raised by Muggles. Probably the only two Parselmouths to come to Hogwarts since the great Slytherin himself. We even look something alike.1
Tom Riddle himself formulates this comparison. He notes similarities in their wizarding “blood,” orphaned state, childhood, Parselmouth abilities and appearance. He makes Harry aware (uncomfortably so) of the things they have in common. This knowledge and awareness will come back to Harry later on (repeatedly in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince) and may be the key to defeating Voldemort. The fact that Harry can relate to and understand so many aspects of Riddle’s life will definitely assist him in carrying out this task. In Chamber of Secrets, Harry is understandably troubled and a bit disturbed by these revelations.
“Professor Dumbledore … Riddle said I’m like him. Strange likenesses, he said …”
“Did he now?” said Dumbledore, looking thoughtfully under his thick silver eyebrows at Harry. “And what do you think, Harry?”
“I don’t think I’m like him!” said Harry, more loudly than he’d intended. “I mean, I’m – I’m in Gryffindor.” 2
Dumbledore, recognizing Harry’s fear of being associated with Tom Riddle’s character and Slytherin characteristics, does not ignore the similarities or disguise them in any way. He acknowledges them, certifies them, but then supports Harry’s statement that he is different from Riddle, different because he chose to be.
“Listen to me, Harry. You happen to have many qualities Salazar Slytherin prized in his hand-picked students. His own very rare gift, Parseltongue … resourcefulness … determination … a certain disregard for the rules,” he added, his moustache quivering again. “Yet […]it is our choices, Harry, that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities.” 3
The fundamental similarities between Harry and Tom Riddle are a result of factors beyond their control. Neither chose to be born half-bloods, neither chose to be orphaned, neither chose to be raised by Muggles, neither chose to be Parselmouths. However, as Dumbledore wisely points out, Riddle chose to move one way in life while Harry has chosen to move another way. Circumstance has drawn them together, while choice is what sets them apart.
The respective childhoods of both Harry Potter and Tom Riddle are especially telling in the kind of person each one becomes. In Half-Blood Prince, Harry is able to see a glimpse of Riddle’s childhood through the use of Dumbledore’s Pensieve; “The orphans, Harry saw, were all wearing the same kind of greyish tunic. They looked reasonably well-cared-for, but there was no denying that this was a grim place in which to grow up.” 4 Harry’s empathy and understanding of the circumstances of Riddle’s childhood stem from his own similar experiences growing up with the Dursleys. Harry sees himself in the eleven-year-old Riddle and his surroundings. The bare necessities of Riddle’s upbringing and the absence of any sort of happiness are familiar to Harry. Dumbledore describes Harry upon first arriving at Hogwarts stating that he was “neither as happy nor as well-nourished as I would have liked, perhaps, yet alive and healthy.” 5 In their pre-Hogwarts lives, both boys had food, shelter and clothing, yet lacked happiness and love. The story of an unhappy childhood is present in both boys’ lives.
In the Schoolyard
The circumstances of their childhoods are similar. The way in which the two boys are perceived by others also allows the reader to see parallels in their stories. Mrs. Cole, the head of the orphanage, gives the following assessment of the child, Tom Riddle: “He was a funny baby […]. He hardly ever cried, you know. And then, when he got a little older, he was … odd.” 6 In the opening chapters of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone the narrator gives us the following description of Harry’s lonely life: “At school, Harry had no one. Everybody knew that Dudley’s gang hated that odd Harry Potter in his baggy old clothes and broken glasses, and nobody liked to disagree with Dudley’s gang.” 7 Having been raised in Muggle environments, it is perhaps only natural that people notice that there is something different about these two boys. Being branded “odd” and seen as outsiders surely affected them and formed their characters in some way. Their sense of being separate from those around them and not being just like everyone else would have affected them from childhood to adolescence and right through to adulthood. It is perhaps this feeling of isolation from those around them which drove Riddle to become Lord Voldemort and also which fuels Harry’s desire to fulfil the legend of “The Chosen One.” The boys were never just one of the many children playing in the schoolyard; they were destined for notoriety and fame.
Welcome to Hogwarts
The episodes describing each character’s introduction to the wizarding world are also very telling. Professor Dumbledore is the Hogwarts ambassador who is assigned the task of telling Tom Riddle that he is a wizard and that he has a place at Hogwarts School. Tom’s reception of Dumbledore can be seen as a reflection of his upbringing, but also of his character:
“I am Professor Dumbledore.”
“ ‘Professor’?” repeated Riddle. He looked wary. “Is that like ‘doctor’? What are you here for? Did she get you in to have a look at me?”
[…]“No, no,” said Dumbledore, smiling.
“I don’t believe you,” said Riddle. “She wants me looked at, doesn’t she? Tell the truth!”
He spoke the last three words with a ringing force that was almost shocking. It was a command, and it sounded as though he had given it many times before.8
For whatever reason, Tom has acquired a deep distrust of strangers. Perhaps Mrs. Cole had suggested Tom see a doctor before or threatened him with the suggestion after some strange incident had occurred. It seems apparent that while he was growing up, Tom Riddle was distrusted and feared by both the children and employees of the orphanage. People were suspicious of him, believing that he had a hand in the strange occurrences that had taken place. Tom himself reciprocates these emotions upon being introduced to Professor Dumbledore. He also exhibits another fundamental aspect of his character during this encounter: his temper. We know that Voldemort has an extremely short fuse and a furious temper. His outburst at Dumbledore at the age of eleven clearly displays this, especially seeing as Dumbledore had done nothing to provoke the outburst. Harry’s introduction to the magical world is somewhat different.
“Who are you?” […]
“True, I haven’t introduced myself. Rubeus Hagrid, Keeper of Keys and Grounds at Hogwarts.”
He held out an enormous hand and shook Harry’s whole arm. […]
“I’m sorry, but I still don’t really know who you are.” […]
“Call me Hagrid,” he said, “everyone does. An’ like I told yeh, I’m keeper of keys at Hogwarts – yeh’ll know all about Hogwarts, o’ course.”
“Er – no,” said Harry.
Hagrid looked shocked.
“Sorry,” Harry said quickly.9
Interestingly enough, Harry does not seem to display any negative traits as a result of his traumatic upbringing with the Dursleys (at least not in this exchange). He is polite, apologetic and seemingly calm in a very strange situation. The Dursleys have bullied, insulted and put Harry down at least as much as Tom had been in the orphanage. Harry, however, does not seem to have developed the trait of lashing out at others as a result.
You’re a Wizard
At the age of eleven, each boy is given the astounding news that they are, in fact, wizards. Each boy reacts in a different way. The young Tom Riddle takes the news as confirmation of something he has always felt:
His legs were trembling. He stumbled forwards and sat down on the bed again, staring at his hands, his head bowed as though in prayer.
“I knew I was different,” he whispered to his own quivering fingers. “I knew I was special. Always, I knew there was something.” 10
An eleven-year-old Harry Potter, on the other hand, is full of uncertainty; “Hagrid looked at Harry with warmth and respect blazing in his eyes, but Harry, instead of feeling pleased and proud, felt quite sure there had been a horrible mistake. A wizard? Him? How could he possibly be?” 11 Each reaction tells us something about their respective characters and their self-perception. Tom Riddle quickly accepts the fact that he is a wizard. He feels as though he has finally received confirmation of his belief that he was special. Harry on the other hand feels sure that there has been a mistake. He feels neither special nor worthy of being a wizard. Clearly Tom Riddle is the more confident boy with the higher self-esteem. Harry doubts himself and this is not only a stage he goes through at eleven, but at several points in his life. Harry is often unsure of his abilities and often undervalues himself. This is what makes Harry human and helps the reader relate to him.
A Face in the Crowd
“I hope you noticed Riddle’s reaction when I mentioned that another shared his first name, ‘Tom’?”
“There he showed his contempt for anything that tied him to other people, anything that made him ordinary. Even then, he wished to be different, separate, notorious.” 12
Tom Riddle always wanted to separate himself from those around him and shunned any possible links to others. This is an extension of his desire to be special. Harry, on the other hand, has always wanted to blend into the crowd. He wants to be accepted, to be like everybody else. Harry, however, has the misfortune of being “The Boy Who Lived” with a very visible lightning bolt scar on his forehead and an unfortunate fame throughout the wizarding world. His discomfort with his fame is contrasted with Tom Riddle’s longing to be special and discomfort with being linked to other people. In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Harry discusses his celebrity and Ron’s jealousy of it with Hermione: “It’s always you who gets all the attention, you know it is.” […] “Tell him from me I’ll swap any time he wants. Tell him from me he’s welcome to it … people gawping at my forehead everywhere I go …” 13
Tom Riddle would love to have lived Harry Potter’s life of recognition and celebrity but Harry, more often than not, tries to step out of the limelight.
In terms of friendships there are also vast differences between Harry Potter and Tom Riddle. Dumbledore states that “Lord Voldemort has never had a friend, nor do I believe that he has ever wanted one.” 14 Even as a child Tom Riddle wanted to be self-sufficient, to do things on his own. His treatment of the other children at the orphanage suggests that he had no tendencies to form friendships, and what is known about his relationships with other students at Hogwarts does not indicate any true or particularly strong bonds. Harry, on the other hand, greatly values friendship. Although he was prevented from making friends at primary school due to Dudley’s influence, upon entering Hogwarts he quickly strikes up friendships. The relationships developed with Hagrid and Ron are examples of this. Friendships are the most important things in Harry’s life; “More than anything else at Hogwarts, more even than playing Quidditch, Harry missed his best friends, Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger.” 15 To make this even more obvious, we see that Ron is taken during the second task of the Triwizard Tournament as the thing Harry would miss the most. Also, in Harry’s times of greatest need, his friends give him courage:
He knew that Ron and Hermione were more shocked than they were letting on, but the mere fact that they were still there on either side of him, speaking bracing words of comfort, not shrinking from him as though he were contaminated or dangerous, was worth more than he could ever tell them.16
Again, this is all linked to Harry’s greatest strength – his ability to love. I don’t think that Tom Riddle ever really understood friendships and this may be his greatest failing and his undoing in the final battle. Harry, Ron and Hermione with their strong bonds of friendship, love and support will be a force to be reckoned with. Voldemort, who leads his followers through fear and terror, may be forced to acknowledge the power of friendship during the final battle.
Dumbledore does contradict his earlier point about Voldemort having never had any friends when he states; “As he moved up the school, he gathered about him a group of dedicated friends […] This group had a kind of dark glamour within the castle.” 17 This description of Riddle’s school group, or clique, seems to draw a parallel to Harry’s relationship to the D.A. Harry has also slowly gathered a group of friends over his years at Hogwarts, beginning with Ron and Hermione, but then expanding to include Neville, Luna, Ginny, and more. At one point in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Harry is reflecting on the success of the D.A. and how the group is managing to survive under Umbridge’s rule: “He and the D.A. were resisting her under her very nose, doing the very thing she and the Ministry most feared.” 18 The way Harry describes the resistance of the D.A. and the risk and danger involved in continuing with the group can link to the “dark glamour” of Riddle’s group. It would appear that Tom Riddle and Harry Potter’s years at Hogwarts shared some similarities. Both boys have attracted a group of friends/followers suggesting that both have a certain amount of charisma, power and influence.
The One to Watch
The dynamics within each of these groups can also be used to draw comparisons between Harry and Riddle’s school lives. While Harry is looking at Slughorn’s memory in the Pensieve, he sees Tom Riddle amongst other members of the Slug Club. Harry notices that “he was by no means the eldest of the group of boys, but that they all seemed to look at him as their leader.” 19 This shows that although Riddle may not have had the close and meaningful friendships that Harry has during his school years, he must have been respected, admired or at least thought of as special by his peers. Similarly, we also see this with Harry in the formation of the D.A.:
In twos and threes the new arrivals settled around Harry, Ron and Hermione, some looking rather excited, others curious […]Every eye was upon Harry. […]The whole group seemed to have held its breath while Harry spoke. […]There was a murmur of impressed agreement around the table.20
Both boys share the experience of having been identified as unique and special and recognized as leaders by their classmates. Although “popular” may not be the right word to use, it is clear that people look up to Tom Riddle and Harry Potter. This may significantly shape their characters as adults. Tom, having been so accustomed to power and authority, developed these qualities further in establishing the Death Eaters. Harry, having had so much experience with people looking to him for answers and expecting so much from him, may find it much easier to adopt the “hero” persona in the seventh book.
Harry Potter and Tom Riddle also share a love of Hogwarts School. For both of them the school saves them from an unpleasant home life and represents freedom, magic and happiness - all things severely lacking from their pre-Hogwarts lives. Therefore it is not surprising that given a choice both boys would willingly choose Hogwarts over their other homes.
“Surely you want to go home for the holidays?”
“No,” said Riddle at once, “I’d much rather stay at Hogwarts than go back to that – to that –”
“You live in a Muggle orphanage during the holidays, I believe?” said Dippet curiously.
“Yes, sir,” said Riddle, reddening slightly.21
Harry’s preference for Hogwarts over his home at Privet Drive takes a similar form: “He missed Hogwarts so much it was like having a constant stomach ache. He missed the castle, with its secret passageways and ghosts, his lessons […] the post arriving by owl, eating banquets in the Great Hall, sleeping in his four-poster bed in the tower dormitory, visiting the gamekeeper, Hagrid, […] and especially, Quidditch.” 22 Apart from simply preferring Hogwarts to their other (horrible) homes, both boys share a deep love of the school. We already know that Riddle’s love of Hogwarts will play a part in the final confrontation between Voldemort and Harry in the form of the Horcruxes, but there may be an even greater connection. Might the final battle take place at Hogwarts? It is a definite possibility.
Investigation, research and uncovering things they shouldn’t are character traits that are common to both Harry and Tom. In Half-Blood Prince we see Professor Slughorn …
wagging a reproving, sugar-covered finger at Riddle, though ruining the effect slightly by winking. “I must say, I’d like to know where you get your information, boy; more knowledgeable than half the staff, you are” […] “your uncanny ability to know things you shouldn’t.” 23
Here Riddle obviously surprised Professor Slughorn with a piece of information that students were not supposed to know. It would seem that this was not the first time Riddle had surprised Slughorn in this way. There are several instances that show Harry in a similar light. In Philosopher’s Stone both Hagrid and Professor McGonagall are shocked by the trio’s knowledge of the Philosopher’s Stone. This pattern is repeated several times throughout the books with Hagrid stating in Order of the Phoenix:
“Never known kids like you three fer knowin’ more’n yeh oughta,” he muttered […]“An’ I’m not complimentin’ yeh, neither. Nosy, some’d call it. Interferin’.” But his beard twitched.24
Perhaps Hagrid has never known students who obtain restricted information as Harry and his friends do, but Slughorn certainly did. Both Harry and Riddle surprise people with information no one expected them to know. The two boys are also skilful in obtaining this information. They know how to talk people into revealing certain things or doing certain things. To put it bluntly, both Harry Potter and Tom Riddle are skilled at manipulating people.
“But you obviously know all about them, sir? I mean, a wizard like you – sorry, I mean, if you can’t tell me, obviously – I just knew if anyone could tell me, you could – so I just though I’d ask – ”
It was very well done, thought Harry, the hesitancy, the casual tone, the careful flattery, none of it overdone. He, Harry, had had too much experience of trying to wheedle information out of reluctant people not to recognise a master at work.25
Both of them possess the power to convince, even Harry acknowledges the similarity. Harry may sometimes need a little extra help in performing such tasks, (such as the Felix Felicis potion he uses in Half-Blood Prince to retrieve the memory from Slughorn), but nevertheless, Harry possesses these skills. Tom Riddle’s gift of persuasion may have been an indication of the power he comes to possess as an adult, after becoming Lord Voldemort. Consequently, we can see Harry also becoming more powerful, taking charge and being able to skilfully obtain what information he needs.
Daddy’s Little Boy
Each boy looks remarkably like his father. Upon visiting the orphanage through Dumbledore’s Pensieve, Harry immediately recognizes the likeness between Tom and his father. Later in Half-Blood Prince we receive further confirmation of this similarity from Morfin, Riddle’s uncle:
“I thought you was that Muggle,” whispered Morfin. “You look mighty like that Muggle.”
“What Muggle?” said Riddle sharply.
“That Muggle what my sister took a fancy to, that Muggle what lives in the big house over the way,” said Morfin […]“You look right like him. Riddle.” 26
Tom Riddle looks so much like his father that he is even mistaken for Tom Riddle Senior by Morfin. Harry has a similar experience in looking so much like his father, James Potter as throughout the books Harry is told repeatedly of how much he resembles his father. Hagrid, Peter Pettigrew, Remus Lupin and Horace Slughorn are just a few of the characters who speak of the similarity. In Order of the Phoenix Harry himself witnesses it when he travels into Snape’s memory in the Pensieve and sees his father at fifteen years of age:
It was as though he was looking at himself but with deliberate mistakes. James’s eyes were hazel, his nose was slightly longer than Harry’s and there was no scar on his forehead, but they had the same thin face, same mouth, same eyebrows, James’s hair stuck up at the back exactly as Harry’s did, his hands could have been Harry’s and Harry could tell that, when James stood up, they would be within an inch of each other in height.27
Each boy has a strong connection to his father. It is interesting to see how the fathers’ roles have impacted upon the boys’ lives, despite not being physically present. Tom Riddle, having learnt that his father abandoned him and his mother, develops a deep hatred of his father and consequently murders him. Harry on the other hand, learns of his father’s heroic sacrifice of dying for his family (a direct opposite to what Tom Riddle Senior did). Harry has grown up with respect and love for his father’s memory. Without having been present, each father has played a significant role in his son’s life.
Of course, both Harry and Tom Riddle knew very little about their parents while they were growing up. In Tom’s case this was because the people at the orphanage knew nothing about Tom's father (save that Merope hoped her son would look like him), and next to nothing about Merope Gaunt, as she died shortly after her son was born. The Dursleys on the other hand know quite a bit more about Lily and James but refuse to share this information with Harry on the basis of their fear of magic. They hoped that if Harry was kept in the dark about his parents, he would not develop any magical tendencies. Harry, just like Tom, has little knowledge of his parents until he arrives at Hogwarts. During their school years, however, both boys uncover quite a bit about their parents. Harry learns about James and Lily from Hagrid, Dumbledore, McGonagall, Lupin, Snape and Sirius. For the most part he is pleased with what he finds out; he feels proud of his parents, and feels connected to them and welcomes any information people give him.
Tom Riddle’s discoveries about his parents, however, take place under completely different circumstances. Not one person at Hogwarts, not even Dumbledore is able to tell Tom about his parents. So naturally, Tom is determined to find this information for himself. “Those whom I could persuade to talk told me that Riddle was obsessed with his parentage. This is understandable, of course; he had grow up in an orphanage and naturally wished to know how he came to be there.” 28 In contrast to Harry, Riddle is not pleased or proud by what he discovers. He learns that his father was a Muggle and had abandoned his mother during her pregnancy. This knowledge and anger is arguably the key to Riddle’s life choices – the final straw. After finding out the truth about his parents, Riddle murders his father, develops a hatred of Muggles, and sets out on his search for immortality. Would things have been different if Tom Riddle’s parents had lived different lives? If his father had not abandoned his mother? If Tom had ended up in an orphanage because both his loving parents had been murdered? This would have undoubtedly altered his entire future. The influence of their parents is undeniable. The boys’ parents have undoubtedly shaped who they have become.
Tom Riddle and Harry Potter share many connections. In Philosopher’s Stone Harry is made aware of the connection his wand shares with Voldemort’s wand. In Goblet of Fire this connection is made clear when the two brother wands are forced to battle each other. Tom and Harry share a connection of the mind with Harry’s being able to read Voldemort’s thoughts and emotions, and Voldemort’s being able to possess Harry and enter his mind. After the events of Goblet of Fire, the two also share a blood connection with Voldemort having used Harry’s blood to regenerate his human form. The wand connection might symbolize their magical abilities, the mind connection might symbolize their intellect or brain power, and the blood connection the two share could be symbolic of the physical similarities between the two. Being connected in so many ways one could almost call the two characters an extension of one person. But there is one hugely significant factor which separates the two: Harry loves, Riddle does not, and therein lies all the difference.
“ ‘The old argument,’ he said softly. ‘But nothing I have seen in the world has supported your famous pronouncements that love is more powerful than my kind of magic, Dumbledore.’ ” 29 This is said by an adult Riddle who has not yet met with the infant Harry Potter. Tom Riddle will soon learn just how powerful a force love can be. It is understandable that Riddle overlooks this power as he has never really loved or been loved by anyone in his life. Harry, on the other hand, knows that he has been loved. At a young age Harry learns about his mother’s sacrifice and the extent of her love for him, and he is obviously moved by it. Riddle has never had a similar experience. Harry knows what it means to be loved, and he knows how to love others; however he still makes the same mistake as Riddle in underestimating its power:
“You have a power that Voldemort has never had. You can – ”
“I know!” said Harry impatiently. “I can love!” It was only with difficulty that he stopped himself adding, “Big deal!”
“Yes, Harry, you can love,” said Dumbledore, who looked as though he knew perfectly well what Harry had just refrained from saying. “Which, given everything that has happened to you, is a great and remarkable thing. You are still too young to understand how unusual you are, Harry.” 30
Love (or the absence of it, in Riddle’s case) has shaped who the boys have become. Love will be what saves Harry and the absence of it will be Tom Riddle’s demise. Harry’s magical power will be fuelled by love and Riddle, for all his knowledge of the Dark Arts, will be unable to fight back.
Most heroes and villains are linked in a constant struggle for power; a battle between good and evil. What makes the Harry Potter stories different is the knowledge that each one has of the other, the idea that “I can understand you, therefore I can defeat you.” Only Harry (who has come from similar experiences) will be able to understand and thereby defeat Voldemort. It was for this reason that Dumbledore ran his “special lessons” with Harry as trips down memory lane, rather than as intensive physical training in advanced magic and the Avada Kedavra curse. With each trip into the Pensieve, Harry learns something about Voldemort’s past, understands him a little better, and is surprised by the number of things they have in common. Harry will come to understand and accept these similarities more and more throughout Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, and be able to use them to his advantage. Harry has knowledge of Riddle’s weaknesses and strengths. He can empathize with Riddle as much as he despises him – and this will be his greatest ammunition.
1. Rowling, Chamber of Secrets, 233.
2. Ibid., 244–45.
3. Ibid., 245.
4. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 251.
5. Ibid., Order of the Phoenix, 737.
6. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 250.
7. Ibid., Philosopher’s Stone, 27.
8. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 252.
9. Ibid., Philosopher’s Stone, 40–41.
10. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 254.
11. Ibid., Philosopher’s Stone, 47.
12. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 259.
13. Ibid., Goblet of Fire, 254.
14. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 260.
15. Ibid., Chamber of Secrets, 11.
16. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 97.
17. Ibid., 338.
18. Ibid., Order of the Phoenix, 352.
19. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 463.
20. Ibid., Order of the Phoenix, 303–6.
21. Ibid., Chamber of Secrets, 181–82.
22. Ibid., 8.
23. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 346.
24. Ibid., Order of the Phoenix, 374.
25. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 464.
26. Ibid., 341–42.
27. Ibid., Order of the Phoenix, 565.
28. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 339.
29. Ibid., 415.
30. Ibid., 476.
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. London: Bloomsbury, 1998.
———. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. London: Bloomsbury, 2000.
———. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. London: Bloomsbury, 2005.
———. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. London: Bloomsbury, 2003.
———. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. London: Bloomsbury, 1997.
———. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. London: Bloomsbury, 1999.