Unfogging “Deathly Hallows” seems a little like J.K. Rowling extracting her strand of thought and putting it in the fan Pensieve. Like Harry with Voldemort’s memories, we are left to swirl it and puzzle out its meaning – its relevance – to the conclusion. And this isn’t just a conclusion; it’s the finale of our Harry Potter universe (a tragedy in and of itself). Aspects of Rowling’s revelation of the title lead in very different but complimentary directions: one highlights the method of extraction – the Hangman game; the other concerns the title itself.
Rowling’s use of the Hangman game to solve the puzzle on her website may have a good deal of relevance to the both the title and to the conclusion of Harry’s saga. In A Dictionary of Symbols, under the heading “Hanged Man,” J.E. Cirlot writes:
This figure has a profound and complex symbolism. It is enigma number twelve of the Tarot pack of cards, but its fundamental significance has wider implications. Frazer noted that primitive man endeavours to keep his deities alive by isolating them between heaven and earth, thereby placing them in a position which is immune to ordinary influence, especially terrestrial one. [...] Both the legend of the Hanged Man as a figure endowed with magic powers, and the Odin myth, belong to this symbolic system. Of Odin it was said that he had sacrificed himself by hanging.1
This symbol which Rowling uses – the game she allows us to play – is a direct reference to The Hanged Man, the Tarot card number twelve of the twenty-one cards in the major arcana (or “greater secrets”) of the Tarot deck. The assumption of a connection would seem more obscure if Rowling had not used the sixteenth Tarot card of The Lightning-Struck Tower as a chapter title of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. But upon closer investigation, other Tarot cards seem evident in other books. She is playing with the Tarot deck. According to Jonathan Dee, when these Tarot cards are laid out in the “Horseshoe spread” there are seven cards in the Tarot reading.2 By adhering to the magical properties of the number seven and applying the Horseshoe spread to each of the books, we can divine some measure of Rowling’s conclusion in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows.
The Magician (Card 1 of numbered Tarot deck)
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone
Card #1 of Horseshoe spread (The Past)
The Tarot card most closely tied to Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone and to Harry himself is The Magician. The Magician card is card number one of the Tarot deck (card #1 above refers to the first card chosen in the Horseshoe spread) and is described as representing: “A youthful figure in the robe of a magician, having the countenance of divine Apollo with smile of confidence and shining eyes.” 3 Ah yes, Lily’s eyes. We have been told that there is significance in those eyes. Laid out on the table in front of the Magician are the symbols of the four Tarot suits:
The suits of the Minor Arcana: Cups, Coins, Swords (as knives). The fourth, the baton (Clubs) he holds in his hand. The traditional Italian suits are swords, batons, coins and cups; in modern tarot decks, however, the batons suit is often called wands, rods, or staves, while the coins suit is often called pentacles or disks.4
These items have a correlation with the Arthurian and Celtic Hallows, or items used in the hero’s search for the grail. In the Celtic tradition, the Hallows are:
1. The Shining spear of Lugh (from Gorias), providing victory in any fight;
2. The Stone of Fal (from Falias), kings were crowned on this;
3. The Sword of Nuadu (from Findias), impossible to avoid being struck and wounded by its contact;
4. The Cauldron of Dagda (from Murias), of plenty.5
The Celtic Hallows develop later into the Pole of Combat, the Sword of Light, the Cauldron of Cure, and the Stone of Destiny, and even later into the four symbols on the table in front of the Magician in the Tarot deck. These Hallows certainly seem to share a number of qualities with Horcruxes: they are objects of great power and/or significance, they are associated with the Magician in the Tarot tradition, and they must be used in the hero’s search for the grail/lofty goal (in Harry’s case, “vanquishing” Voldemort).
The “Hallow” suits of the Minor arcana are also associated with the four elements – air, fire, water and earth6– as are the four houses in Hogwarts: Hufflepuff with earth; Ravenclaw with air; Slytherin with water; and Gryffindor with fire (Harry/Dumbledore/Phoenix/flaming red hair).7 While there is little certainty at present about all of the Horcruxes, it seems that J.K. has borrowed the word Hallow to symbolize the objects Harry must find and destroy to fulfill his quest. And in the process of destroying these Hallows, Harry will also be symbolically destroying the Hogwarts houses – the very advice that Sorting Hat gives in the fifth book:
Though condemned I am to split you
Still I worry that it’s wrong,
Though I must fulfill my duty
And must quarter every year
Still I wonder whether Sorting
May not bring the end I fear.
Oh, know the perils, read the signs,
The warning history shows,
For our Hogwarts is in danger
From external, deadly foes
And we must unite inside her
Or we’ll crumble from within
I have told, I have warned you...
Let the Sorting now begin.8
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone introduces us to the Magician/Harry/Hero, establishes the history of Hogwarts/past and Harry’s significant place in the magical world due to Voldemort and his scar, and lays the groundwork for Harry’s ultimate quest for the four Hallows/Horcruxes associated with the four houses of Hogwarts.
The Wheel of Fortune (Card 10 of the Tarot deck)
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
Card #2 of the Horseshoe spread (The Present)
The Wheel of Fortune is much more obscure, I admit, but the central point that links this card to the second book is Dumbledore and Harry’s conversation about his similarities to Tom Riddle and why he was placed in Gryffindor:
The Sorting Hat placed you in Gryffindor [because he asked not to be placed in Slytherin] [...] Which makes you very different from Tom Riddle. Its our choices, Harry, that show what we really are, far more than our abilities.9
According to Hajo Banzhaf:
The Wheel of Fortune represents all the tasks that we have to accomplish in our lifetime… Becoming, existing, and passing are the powers that keep the wheel of time in motion… Whenever this card appears, it says that the theme in question now enters into our life in order to be mastered.10
This card is further described as follows:
The most common versions of The Wheel of Fortune shows a wheel floating in the sky inscribed with the letters TARO and alchemical symbols representing the elements underlying the four suits of the tarot, Fire (Wands), Water (Cups), Earth (Discs) and Air (Swords). This recalls the emblems of the four suits of the tarot actually laying on the table of The Magician [...]
Through its cross sum (the sum of the digits), it is closely connected to The Magician [card] 1, and The Sun, [card] 19. Each represents a rupture with the previous order; the Magician starting the journey; The Wheel of Fortune introducing random chance; The Sun reborn from the underworld.
When it appears in a tarot throw, it typically signals the insertion of a random force, the start of something new, or a need to understand the underlying structures. It may carry a warning that the Querant needs to accept the gift or curse that's coming and learn from it.11
That the Wheel of Fortune card comes second in our Horseshoe spread indicates that in the present there is a turning point (Harry’s choice of Gryffindor and rejection of the lure of dark magic is verified by his pulling the Godric Gryffindor’s sword from the Sorting Hat), there are unpleasant surprises (Harry discovers he shares many of Voldemort’s abilities), and there is an acceptance of the “curse” and his destiny (Harry’s scar, his parents murder and his connection to Voldemort). The turning of the Wheel of Fortune indicates that the dominance of each creature on the wheel (corresponding to the Hogwarts houses) will in turn be displaced by the dominance of another. Jo alludes to this throughout the series with the Hogwarts house points. But on a larger scale, the dominance of Slytherin/water/Voldemort seems to be reaching the top of the wheel and the dominance of Gryffindor/fire/Order of the Phoenix is climbing the wheel just behind it – looking like it may take over the dominant position at the top.
However, we must keep in mind that there is also the ability to alter destiny over time. Harry must just remember that he has the choice. This emphasis on choice is repeated in Half-Blood Prince, when Dumbledore discusses the prophecy with Harry:
“You see, the prophecy does not mean you have to do anything! But the prophecy caused Lord Voldemort to mark you as his equal... . In other words, you are free to choose your way, quite free to turn your back on the prophecy! But Voldemort continues to set store by the prophecy. He will continue to hunt you ... which makes it certain, really, that –”
“That one of us is going to end up killing the other,” said Harry.12
Harry’s choice is bound to be a major factor in Deathly Hallows, but that choice may be the difference between “killing” and “vanquishing” Voldemort.
The Moon (Card 18 of the Tarot deck)
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
Card #3 of the Horseshoe spread (Hidden influences at work)
The Moon card is very clear in relation to Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. The picture on the card is described as:
The waxing Moon with a scowling face [...][With] two large, forbidding pillars. Some see them as tombstones, others relate them to Karma. There's a pathway into the distant, dark unknown. There are a wild dog and a wolf, howling at the Moon. The two canines are said by Waite to represent “the fears of the natural mind in the presence of that place of exit, when there is only reflected light to guide it.” 13
References to the moon, wolf and the dog are everywhere in Prisoner of Azkaban: in Severus Snape’s lesson,14 in Remus Lupin’s greatest fear represented by the boggart,15 in Lupin himself as a werewolf, in Sirius Black’s animagus form, the dog, and in the Grim that the black dog represents. The aspect of fear associated with this card is also the dominant theme of Prisoner of Azkaban: the Dementors feed themselves on fear and Harry’s main task in this book is facing and overcoming his fears; Harry has always spoken Voldemort’s name, refusing to increase his fear of the thing itself by fearing to state the name; and Harry constantly faints when the Dementors approach him because he has a deep association with fear and the loss of his parents. With regard to fear, Lupin observes:
“I assumed that if the boggart faced you [Harry], it would assume the shape of Lord Voldemort. [...] Clearly I was wrong. [...] I’m impressed. [...] That suggests that what you fear most of all is – fear. Very wise, Harry.” 16
The hidden influences at work in book three are clearly the full moon, the werewolf, Sirius’ animagus form, the Grim, deception, doubt and fear – all influences associated with the Moon card. What this card indicates are the things Harry needs to overcome as he moves through the seven books: not only his fear of Voldemort, but his fear of his own destiny and his fear of death – of losing more of the people he loves. Fear isn’t something he completely overcomes in Prisoner of Azkaban, but he learns the importance of overcoming it. He will have to accept Sirius’s and Dumbledore’s deaths, and not allow his fear of losing others or his self doubt to overcome his will to face his destiny.
The Devil (Card 15 of the Tarot deck)
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
Card #4 of the Horseshoe spread (Obstacles to be overcome)
The Devil card depicts a Satan-type figure who holds a man and woman in chains below him. The Devil is described as:
The card of self-bondage to an idea or belief which is preventing us from growing […] Should the Devil represent a person, it will most likely be one of money and power, one who is persuasive, aggressive, and controlling […] In any case, it is most important that the Querent understands that the ties that bind are freely worn, and you are only enslaved if you allow the abuse to go on.17Banzhaf adds that this card represents the shadow or darkness in oneself.18
In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Voldemort finally makes his “physical” appearance. The Devil card could certainly represent Voldemort as the obstacle to be overcome and also the aggressive and controlling adversary who is both outside Harry and within Harry, but it also represents the “bondage” aspect of the Devil card indicated by the chains. Harry is bound to Voldemort through his scar and the physical attributes he shares. He also feels bound to Voldemort by the prophecy. In the climax of Goblet of Fire, Voldemort intentionally binds himself to Harry through the use of Harry’s blood to bring himself back to life – a move that causes “the gleam of something like triumph in Dumbledore’s eyes.” 19 Additionally, Voldemort and Harry’s wands are bound through the phoenix feathers; this is what causes the Priori Incantatem during their duel at the end of Goblet of Fire that makes the “shadows” of those Voldemort murdered to reappear.
In Goblet of Fire, Harry must overcome a series of obvious obstacles in the Triwizard Tournament, but the most daunting obstacle is Voldemort. However, this card’s positive aspect also involves bonds that are good. At the end of book four Dumbledore states:
“Every guest in this Hall [...] will be welcomed back here at any time, should they wish to come. I say to you all, once again – in the light of Lord Voldemort’s return, we are only as strong as we are united, as weak as we are divided. Lord Voldemort’s gift for spreading discord and enmity is very great. We can fight it only by showing an equally strong bond of friendship and trust. Differences of habit and language are nothing at all if our aims are identical and our hearts are open.” 20
All these bonds may turn out to be both the central threat and Harry’s salvation in Deathly Hallows: the bond symbolized by Harry’s scar which may indicate that part of Voldemort’s soul was actually transferred to Harry (that he is, in fact, a mistaken Horcrux); the bonds of friendship and trust among wizards; the bond of the prophecy; and the blood bond that may be Voldemort’s undoing because love now flows in his veins too.
Death (Card 13 of the Tarot deck)
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
Card #5 of the Horseshoe spread (The attitudes of other people)
The Death card sounds more ominous than it necessarily is.
When Death appears in a spread, it may speak of the transformation of passing through the gateway of death, hopefully metaphorically, it may speak of the stillness of the grave, hopefully, metaphorically. It also can be a warning that time is short; measure our use of the tiny morsel we are given against the infinity we are not.
Death may also serve as an example of power manifesting itself over our poor attempts to control it. Forms become exhausted, the center cannot hold, cells forget how to be what they were. Sometimes, change can delay the inevitable.21
The Death card can indicate actual death, but is more often a transformation that may be positive. Associations with the card include: being caught up in the inescapable, psychological transformation, separation, conclusion, and deep change. Another aspect of the Death card is its connection with time:
Death and Time are closely linked. Both are often shown carrying a scythe, both are often called the Reaper. The one who takes in the harvest. Death is the price one pays to exist in time.22
There are, of course, strong allusions to time and death in the concluding scenes in the Department of Mysteries when Dumbledore’s Army is battling the Death Eaters in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. Banzhaf also associates the Death card with the “descent into the underworld.” 23 A good deal of the action of Order of the Phoenix takes place literally in the dungeons of the Ministry of Magic and with the dark magic of the Death Eaters’ world, in a sort of symbolic underworld. And of course there is the climactic scene when Sirius passes behind the mysterious veil, into what appears to be the literal underworld, a world of shadows and voices.
In Order of the Phoenix, Harry also goes public with his warning to the wizarding world about the return of Voldemort and the Death Eaters, as well as about Cedric’s murder. He consequently spends most of the book battling the rise of the dark wizards' power and fighting the attitudes of people who consider him crazy. Harry must not only battle with the attitudes of others, but also with himself and his own anger over Sirius’s death. Order of the Phoenix is both about Harry’s passing through the gateway of Cedric’s and Sirius’s deaths and change forced upon him by their deaths. This is symbolized by Harry’s ability to see the Thestrals. He and others who have seen death are changed and see things no one else can – they have symbolically passed through this gateway. What the Death card means for the seventh book is likely that Harry has come to terms with death symbolically, rather than that it forebodes his own death. However, we know there are deaths still to come.
The Tower/Lightning-Struck Tower (Card 16 of the Tarot deck)
Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince
Card #6 of the Horseshoe spread (What the querent should do)
We have finally reached the card that is most explicitly linked to its corresponding book. Interestingly, the first mention of the Lightning-Struck Tower occurs before the chapter does. It is in the conversation between Trelawney and Harry. Trelawney states:
“The headmaster has intimated that he would prefer fewer visits from me,” she said coldly. “I am not one to press my company upon those who do not value it. If Dumbledore chooses to ignore the warnings the cards show –”
Her bony hand closed suddenly around Harry’s wrist. “Again and again, no matter how I lay them out –” And she pulled a card dramatically from underneath her shawls. “– the lightning-struck tower,” she whispered. “Calamity. Disaster. Coming nearer all the time ...” 24
Here we have Trelawney making yet a third correct prediction that might warrant a raise, but this is also an explicit statement that the title of the chapter to follow is indeed a reference to the Tarot card. Rowling is explicitly stating that the Tarot deck plays a role in this book and that it actually predicts a future event. The “lightning” strikes the tower two chapters later and Dumbledore dies. However, again, what the Lightning-Struck Tower represents is not always only the darkest associations with the card:
Each card in the Major Arcana is a result of the previous. After the self bondage of The Devil, life is self correcting. Either the querent needs to make changes in their own life or they will be made for them.25
If we follow the order of appearance of the Tarot cards in Rowling’s seven card spread, we see that our Magician has chosen – so far – to accept his destiny and take the path of vanquishing Lord Voldemort. He has dealt with his fears and with two deaths, and is aware of the bonds that both support him and threaten him. With Dumbledore’s death, Harry’s source of protection is destroyed. Snape turns traitor and Harry is thrust into the position of shouldering the fate of the wizarding world essentially alone – unless he reaches out to others and trusts himself. This is disaster, but it also foreshadows Harry’s coming of age and his liberation to choose this own course of action in the final book. Liberation is another aspect associated with the Lightning-Struck Tower card. Dumbledore laid out the task very clearly for Harry before he dies. Harry knows what he must do, but must also remember that the choices are his to make.
Hanged Man (Card 12 of the Tarot deck)
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Card #7 of the Horseshoe spread (The outcome)
The hangman game Rowling used to give us the title of the seventh book is a much looser reference than her chapter title in Half-Blood Prince, more subtle and more obscure. It is interesting that the Lightning-Struck Tower actually follows the Hanged Man in the Tarot deck since Rowling uses them in reverse in her spread. It actually could indicate a more positive reading, because, as one source states:
The twist on this card is that the hanged man's upside downness may eventually destroy him in later cards (such as death or the tower). Receiving the hanged man should be a warning to look out for excessive independence at the expense of a person's own well being.26
Our first thought? The card refers to Harry ... possibly. Harry is suspended between wanting to hold onto his subordinate role as Dumbledore’s student and his need to act independently as an adult wizard and to fulfill the prophecy. However, at the end of Half-Blood Prince, he has decided that he will strike out alone and is only later talked into allowing Hermione and Ron to come along. Harry is also suspended in the sense that he feels he cannot be free of Voldemort or of the prophecy. We already see Harry’s spiritual growth in the end of Half-Blood Prince and it is likely we will continue to see it through the end of Deathly Hallows. And this spiritual growth is directly related to the previous Tarot card, The Lightning-Struck Tower and to Dumbledore’s death.
The Hanged Man also represents sacrifice. In A Dictionary of Symbols, Cirlot writes further:
[The Hanged Man’s] arms are tied together, and hold half-opened bags out of which gold coins are tumbling, this being an allegory of the spiritual treasures to be found in the being who performs this self-sacrifice [...] In the positive sense, number twelve of the Tarot pack stands for mysticism, sacrifice, self-denial, continence [self-command, self-restraint] . In the negative sense it denotes a Utopian dream-world.27
Oh, this does still sound like it could represent Harry, and the ominous forecast of his self-sacrifice recalls Rowling’s statement that “two [characters] die that I didn't intend to die.” If Harry is indeed an inadvertent Horcrux, the possibility looms that he must die in order to destroy the piece of Voldemort’s soul inside him. But the sacrifice implied by The Hanged Man does not necessarily carry an association with death. This card can thus serve as a warning to take steps to avoid death. So, our beloved Harry may not die. That is something to hold onto.
However, stepping back from our assumption that Harry is The Hanged Man, let’s take a look at one other feature of The Hanged Man in the Tarot deck. Cirlot writes:
The Tarot card mentioned above depicts a figure like the Minstrel hanging by one foot from a rope tied to a crossbar supported by two leafless trees. The interpretation is that the Hanged Man does not live the ordinary life of this earth, but, instead, lives in a dream of mystical idealism. The strange gallows from which he hangs is yellow in colour to indicate it consists of concentrated light; i.e., concentrated thought. Thus it is said that the Hanged Man hangs from his own doctrine, to which he is attached to such an extent that his entire being hangs upon it.28
And further on this aspect of The Hanged Man it is stated:
When [The Hanged Man] appears in a throw, he often signals a past sacrifice (of the Querent or otherwise) [of the individual who goes to some form of psychic reader] whose energy is either still enriching the life or being misspent. He can also represent a sacrifice the Querent is being set up to make. That can be a good thing (initiating the Querant into the mysteries, saving the world) or not so much (duping the Querent into an unwise sacrifice). He may also signal something (usually not cheery) about the person's relationship with their partner or parent.29
These descriptions may still apply to Harry, but they seem to wander further away from Harry’s situation and character. A final quote states:
The most common interpretation of the card [The Hanged Man] is of an outcast of society that appears to be a fool but is actually in complete alignment. The upside downness of the hanged man gives him an advantage that outsiders are unable to see or understand.30
What I am driving at here is that The Hanged Man may not apply only to Harry, if applies to him at all. We should remember that what Harry observes in Order of the Phoenix:
Several people watching laughed; Snape was clearly unpopular. Wormtail sniggered shrilly. Snape was trying to get up, but the jinx was still operating on him; he was struggling, as though bound by invisible ropes [...] Snape had directed his wand straight at James; there was a flash of light and a gash appeared on the side of James’s face, spattering his robes with blood. James whirled about; a second flash of light later, Snape was hanging upside down in the air, his robes falling over his head to reveal skinny, pallid legs and a pair of graying underpants.31
Here we have Snape actually suspended by his feet. He appears the fool, though clearly Snape is no fool, and we certainly know that Snape has sacrificed a great deal to infiltrate Voldemort’s camp (if he is indeed loyal to Dumbledore). Though we have been presented with one perspective of Dumbledore’s death, namely Harry’s, we cannot be certain that Snape hasn’t acted on Dumbledore’s orders. Snape is, after all, a master of Occlumency and Legilimency. He could have read Dumbledore’s mind on the Astronomy tower before he used the Avada Kedavra curse. Snape is certainly an “outcast of society,” but is possibly being set up to sacrifice his own standing as a trusted ally of Dumbledore and possibly his life. He is also being set up for almost universal condemnation in the wizarding world for his association with Voldemort and the Death Eaters in order to protect Draco and Harry. Snape is suspended between these two predicaments. We must bear in mind that Snape has never done anything but try to protect Harry, even at the end of Half-Blood Prince. Additionally, Snape has unresolved emotional issues with his parent/father. And we should also remember what Snape screams, in his frustration with what has happened and his predicament: “DON’T [...] CALL ME COWARD!” 32 These are the words of someone who has sacrificed and is suspended between forces he can’t control, which sound like the words of The Hanged Man to me. But the Hanged Man card also indicates a test that will result in spiritual growth and serenity, and that would be a fitting end to Harry’s and Snape’s quest.
What Rowling’s Spread of Tarot Cards Predict
To clear some measure of the fog, Rowling’s spread of cards, when read in the Horseshoe pattern, indicates a progression of the hero/magician through; the uncovering of hidden influences; facing the obstacles that must be overcome; contending with the obstinate and vengeful attitudes of others; discovering the full scope of the task; and finally completing it. The Tarot spread begins on the cusp of the “arc of night” with the Magician card and takes us on a journey through the underworld.33 Although this implies that the story will be a dark one, the darkest cards of Death, The Lightning-Struck Tower, and The Devil are already behind us, and Harry has survived them. Harry is certain to continue his quest to destroy the Deathly Hallows/Horcruxes in Deathly Hallows, and will attempt to destroy Voldemort, but woven into this quest will be Snape’s sacrifice and vindication, whether or not he dies in his attempt.
The key to this resolution is also in Harry’s choices: one choice being to trust in his friends and allies; a second choice in his fulfillment of the prophecy. The protection Lily gave Harry is love and all indications in Half-Blood Prince show that love is on the rise among a variety of characters including Harry. This would indicate that the story has almost completed its journey through the underworld and is headed for the “arc of the day.” 34 Love is Harry’s power, after all, so it is only fitting that the bonds that are developing from Goblet of Fire on, are also bonds of love – even ironically through Harry’s bond with Voldemort. Lily’s love in Harry’s blood, now flowing through Voldemort’s veins, is sure to somehow be his undoing.
Harry may discover through the final book that he does, in fact, carry a part of Voldemort’s soul. But rather than killing Voldemort, Harry may realize that he only needs to destroy three Horcruxes/Hallows and allow the love that is now “corrupting” Voldemort to destroy him. A piece of Voldemort’s soul will of course remain in Harry, but in a sense, even by the end of Half-Blood Prince Harry has “vanquished” the influence that Voldemort has over him. He has spent seven years learning to make the right choices. The test, and the right choice, may be simply to co-exist with the final piece of Voldemort’s soul. Voldemort chose to give Harry the power to “vanquish” him – he self-fulfilled that part of the prophecy – but Harry has the choice to ignore the part in the prophecy that requires him to kill. This would be the mark of his spiritual growth. Based on the direction the cards are taking him, I think he will make this choice. With all other parts of Voldemort destroyed, and the part within Harry vanquished, Voldemort will no longer be a threat. And through the sacrifices of The Hanged Man (Harry or Snape or both), the wizarding world may journey toward the “arc of the day” and share the state of harmony pictured on The Hanged Man’s face.
1. Cirlot, A Dictionary of Symbols, 138.
2. Ibid., 59.
3. Wikipedia, s.v. “The Magician (Tarot Card).”
5. Mystical World Wide Web, s.v. “Hallows.”
6. Dee, Tarot, 34-46.
7. Wikipedia, s.v., “Hogwarts Houses.”
8. Rowling, Order of the Phoenix, 206-7.
9. Ibid., Chamber of Secrets, 333.
10. Banzhaf, Tarot and the Journey, 88.
11. Wikipedia, s.v. “Wheel of Fortune (Tarot Card).”
12. Rowling, Half-Blood Prince, 512.
13. Wikipedia, s.v., “The Moon (Tarot Card).”
14. Rowling, Prisoner of Azkaban, 170-73.
15. Ibid., 138.
16. Ibid., 155.
17. Wikipedia, s.v., “The Devil (Tarot Card).”
18. Banzhaf, Tarot and the Journey, 155-171.
19. Rowling, Goblet of Fire, 696.
20. Ibid., 723.
21. Wikipedia, s.v., “Death (Tarot Card).”
23. Banzhaf, Tarot and the Journey, 123.
24. Rowling, Half-Blood Prince, 543.
25. Wikipedia, s.v., “The Tower (Tarot Card).”
26. Ibid., s.v., “The Hanged Man.”
27. Cirlot, A Dictionary of Symbols, 138.
29. Wikipedia, s.v., “The Hanged Man.”
31. Rowling, Order of the Phoenix, 646-47.
32. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 604.
33. Banzhaf, Tarot and the Journey, 22.
Banzhaf, Hajo. Tarot and the Journey of the Hero. Maine: Samuel Weiser, Inc., 2000.
Cirlot, J.E. A Dictionary of Symbols. Trans. Jack Sage. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1971.
Dee, Jonathan. Tarot. London: Barnes & Noble, 1998.
Mystical World Wide Web, Arthurian, A2Z, s.v. “Hallows.” http://www.mystical-www.co.uk/arthuriana2z/h.htm (accessed 26 February 2007).
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Scholastic Books, 1999.
———. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. New York: Scholastic Books, 2000.
———. Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince. New York: Scholastic Books, 2005.
———. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. New York: Scholastic Books, 2003.
———. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. New York: Scholastic Books, 1999.
———. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. New York: Scholastic Books, 1997.
Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/ (accessed 22 January 2007).