Hermione stopped dead; Harry heard it too. Somebody had moved close behind them among the dark bookshelves. They waited, and a moment later the vulturelike countenance of Madam Pince appeared around the corner, her sunken cheeks, her skin like parchment, and her long hooked nose illuminated unflatteringly by the lamp she was carrying.1
With the publication of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince and Snape’s subsequent flight from Hogwarts, there are many questions that have been raised about the former Potions Master, including the following: how could Albus Dumbledore possibly remain so steadfast is his defense of Severus Snape? How could he be so sure of Snape’s loyalty and go as far as to say he trusts him “completely”?2 I would argue that Dumbledore had an ace in the hole, something unknown to anyone else that made him comfortable in his belief that Snape really was on his side, or at the very least, was no longer one of Lord Voldemort’s loyal Death Eaters. I think that the hidden clue we all are searching for can be found in the Hogwarts library, in the person of Madam Irma Pince, the school’s librarian. It is my belief that Madam Pince is in fact Snape’s mother, Eileen Prince.
The most common support of this theory is the anagram: Irma Pince = I’m a Prince. It seems so absurdly simple that it is often immediately discounted as a red herring or a rather bad copy of the “I am Lord Voldemort” 3 anagram.
In Half-Blood Prince, the reader is introduced to Snape’s mother Eileen Prince through Hermione’s determination to find out just who the Half-Blood Prince really was. She finds a clipping of Eileen as a student as well as old Daily Prophet announcements of both her marriage to Muggle Tobias Snape as well as Severus’s birth.4 Hermione discovers information about Eileen Prince while trying to help Harry find out who the Potions book Harry had been using all year could have belonged to in the past. Why bring Eileen into the equation at all? In the Harry Potter series, the role of the mother is one of the most important. Think of Molly Weasley, Lily Potter, Merope Gaunt Riddle, Narcissa Malfoy, and even Petunia Dursley. It would not be surprising at all to learn that the key to Snape’s heart belongs to his own mother.
J.K. Rowling once explained that some parts of Half-Blood Prince were originally intended for the second book, but she thought some parts were too revealing that early in the series.5 If we had found out Snape’s mother’s name as early as Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, the similarities between Madam Pince and Snape could have been spotlighted, since the anagram would have been apparent. As it is, only now, after Snape appears to have committed the most heinous of crimes, after we question his motives, would Rowling want to reveal the evidence of their relationship. Perhaps the identity of his mother might provide evidence about his loyalties?
In Half-Blood Prince, we learn Snape lives in a rundown Muggle neighborhood and he owns quite a large collection of books. It would seem it is his family home based on the fact that it is not well maintained, as Snape is at Hogwarts much of the year, as well as being situated in a Muggle neighborhood. It seems hard to believe that Snape would choose to purchase such a home and inheritance seems the more likely explanation, just as Sirius stayed in his parents’ house at Grimmauld Place. Since we have found out his mother’s name, the savvy reader might have been able to identify the mysterious Half-Blood Prince, one Severus Snape, based on Spinner’s End. Perhaps his the resemblance of his home to a library should also be considered a significant piece of information.
“Turn to Page 394” 6
In the first five books, excepting Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, each time Madam Pince is mentioned - which is in only one chapter of each book – it has immediately followed a Snape-heavy chapter, and in some way Madam Pince copies or mirrors his actions.
In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, Harry fears that if he asks Madam Pince about Nicholas Flamel, Snape will find out about it.7 Not just any teacher, but Snape specifically. On the first reading, it seemed this was important because Snape appeared to be the bad guy. But in light of this theory, it could also point to the fact that it would be Madam Pince giving the information to Snape. In this very first book, Rowling uses identical phrases for both of these characters: “What they needed was a nice long search without Madam Pince breathing down their necks,” and “Snape made them all nervous, breathing down their necks while they tried to remember how to make a Forgetfulness potion.” 8 Rowling is very careful with her words, and I believe this repetition is very significant.
In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Harry is accused of wrongdoing in the incident with Mrs. Norris. Snape suggests there are “suspicious [. . .] circumstances.” 9 In this scene, Dumbledore famously tells Snape that a person is “innocent until proven guilty.” 10 Harry suggests they all get to bed before Snape “tries to frame us for something else.” 11 Sure enough, in the very next chapter, Hermione comes to Madam Pince with a note from Gilderoy Lockhart, so she can check out Most Potente Potions from the library’s restricted section.12 Madam Pince is immediately suspicious, echoing Snape’s words. “Madam Pince held the note up to the light, as though determined to detect a forgery, but it passed the test.” 13 In both cases, Snape and Madam Pince attempt to find something out of the ordinary and assume that something wrong must have occurred. Interestingly enough, in Sorcerer’s Stone, the book Snape takes from Harry mentions Madam Pince in the introduction,14 while here in Chamber of Secrets, it’s a Potions book the Trio are trying to get from the library. Once again Rowling appears to be using parallels between Snape and Pince, placing in the Trio’s hands the books that belong to the other.
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire is a more subtle example to be sure. Certainly one of the most memorable scenes from that book occurs when Snape, Filch and Mad-Eye Moody come across one another late at night, when Harry drops the egg containing the clue for the Second Task of the Triwizard Championship.15 He is on his way back from the prefect’s bath, where he had been working on the egg clue, when he attracts their attention, although only Moody knows he’s there. In the following chapter, Madam Pince sends Harry on his way because the library is closing, but he sneaks back in to continue searching for a way to breathe under water.16 The similarity between the two scenes in this cases revolves entirely around the setting: both take place at night, Harry is working on clues for the second task of the Triwizard Tournament in each, and both times he is out past curfew with his Invisibility Cloak. However, it does still follow the pattern of Madam Pince showing herself in the chapter following Snape and with a passing similarity between the two in this case.
The most significant incident occurs in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. In the chapter of Snape’s Worst Memory we see an out-of-control, enraged Snape after he finds that Harry had looked into the Pensieve while Snape had left his office. Clearly he has been wronged, and it takes all of his effort not to throttle Harry within an inch of his life.
“Get out, get out, I don’t want to see you in this office ever again!”
And as Harry hurtled toward the door, a jar of dead cockroaches exploded over his head. He wrenched the door open and flew away up the corridor, stopping only when he had put three floors between himself and Snape.17
So Harry gets away as fast as he can, running from a Snape “white with rage” 18, a Snape throwing things at him and ordering him out of his office.
In the very next chapter, only six pages later, Harry and Ginny are eating chocolate in the library, though eating in the library is strictly forbidden. When caught, Ginny says ingenuously, “I forgot,” 19 just as Harry should have known better than to look in the Pensieve. Madam Pince's reaction once again closely resembles Snape’s:
Madam Pince was swooping down upon them, her shriveled face contorted with rage.
“Chocolate in the library!” she screamed. “Out-out-OUT!”
And whipping out her wand, she caused Harry’s books, bag, and ink bottle to chase him and Ginny from the library, whacking them repeatedly over the head as they ran.20
Madam Pince is also raging, telling Harry to get out, having something fly behind (and hit, in this case) Harry’s head. Harry and Ginny are both running, just as Harry did from Snape. Quite amusing as well is the fact that Snape throws cockroaches and Harry and Ginny are eating chocolate: sounds like the making of a Cockroach Cluster to me. If we aren’t meant to see the connection there, I’d be very surprised.
There are lots of little things as well that, upon reflection, seem to stand out. Both Snape and Pince have the tendency to “swoop.” 21 Madam Pince uses her own hexes and jinxes on library books, and we know Snape was a dab hand at inventing his own.Madam Pince demands “respect” for the books checked out of the library, and if Snape doesn’t want respect (“Professor Snape, Harry” 22), who does? They both are familiar with Muggle items: in Sorcerer’s Stone, she “brandished” a feather duster at Harry; while in Chamber of Secrets, Snape makes reference to a matchbox.23 We know now that Snape should be familiar with the Muggle world – as he lives in a Muggle neighborhood – but that doesn’t explain why Madam Pince is comfortable with Muggle artifacts as she is a witch, unlike, say, Filch, who is a squib.
It seems that the one thing that doesn’t really follow is Madam Pince’s nose. From Snape’s memory in the fifth book we see a hook-nosed man yelling at a cowering woman. It appears these two people are his parents. Eileen Prince’s nose is not described as hook-nosed any time she has been mentioned. Snape certainly has always been described that way, from the very first book, he has been described with “greasy black hair, a hooked nose, and sallow skin.” 24 Madam Pince, is a “thin, irritable woman who looked like an underfed vulture.” 25 Those descriptions hold until Order of the Phoenix: when Tonks is changing her nose at Grimmauld Place over dinner, Harry mentions that one of them looks like Snape’s “beak-like” nose.26 “Beak-like” is a new description for his nose. When we see Madam Pince in Half-Blood Prince, she has a “hooked nose.” 27 Why now? After five books her physical description suddenly includes something so quintessentially Snape. Now we learn about Eileen Prince, now we can make the connection between Pince and Prince. Logically, there has to be evidence that they are one and the same person. Acting like Snape is significant, but the reader must be able to see the evidence as well. Once Snape went to beak-like and Madam Pince went to hook-nosed, their lines of distinction overlapped. So while Eileen Prince is in hiding in the library, she acquires a slight resemblance to her son. We have never seen the two of them together. Perhaps Hermione would have been the one to work that out, if given the opportunity. I suspect she might be the one who does it in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows.
Argus Filch seems to be nearly the only person Snape can get along with on a regular basis. No doubt part of that is because they have similar feelings about punishing recalcitrant students. In Sorcerer’s Stone, Snape takes from Harry the library’s copy of Quidditch Through the Ages, telling him he isn’t allowed to take library books outside. Harry later goes to retrieve the book from Snape and comes across Filch passing Snape bandages for his injured leg. At the time, it was more important to realize Snape must have been “up to something” 28 rather than noticing that Snape was depending on Filch, of all people, to help him tend his wounds. Snape doesn’t seem the type to ask for help from anyone. Filch reports to Snape about goings-on in the castle late at night, including Harry’s foray into the restricted section of the library. But if we skip forward to Half-Blood Prince, Harry and Hermione argue about whether Filch and Madam Pince are “secretly in love with each other.” 29 Interesting, since Madam Pince doesn’t come to dinner, and they aren’t seen playing footsy in the Great Hall. Why even mention them in the same sentence? Because we are meant to start putting these anvil-sized clues together.
While it’s true that Filch showed pleasure in Umbridge’s reign at Hogwarts, his relationships with both Snape and Madam Pince both show hints of something more that just cranky insistence on following the rules. Filch escorts Madam Pince to Dumbledore’s funeral. Considering how completely Madam Pince appears to be cut off from everyone else at Hogwarts, this shows that isn’t completely true. Half-Blood Prince displays quite a bit of match-making: Harry and Ginny, Lupin and Tonks, Ron and Hermione and Fleur staying with Bill. It is hard to imagine Filch, on the spur of the moment, having an altruistic compulsion to see whether Madam Pince wanted an escort to the funeral. That would be much more generous display than I would have ever believed possible from him. The only way I can fathom at all his being with her is if there is something to be made of the two of them together – making Snape’s relationship with Filch suddenly more understandable.
A Little Background Music
As someone who researched name meanings for my own children, I fully understand Rowling’s desire to use them to their maximum worth. Remus Lupin tells us about him in just two words. The same is true of Dolores Umbridge. Rowling explained: “I just can't move on until I know I've called them the right thing.” 30 Perhaps a closer look at both Irma and Eileen is in order.
The name Irma comes from German. It means “entire, whole, universal,complete.” 31 When Harry asks Dumbledore how he can be so sure Snape is on his side, Dumbledore thinks for a moment and then replies, “I trust Severus Snape completely.” 32 Dumbledore also tells Draco he can hide him and his family more “completely” than he could ever dream.33 I would wager that Dumbledore has made this offer before and has successfully made people disappear. Could he have made the offer to Snape and hidden his mother Eileen at Hogwarts?
Eileen can be the Irish form of the name Helen, which means “torchlight” in Greek.34 It can also be a variant of Eibhlin, meaning “bird.” 35 I think the meaning “light” could be significant for Snape, who seems to wallow in the darkness. Whereas “bird” reflects what I believe Snape’s patronus would be, which is the Augurey, the Irish Phoenix. St. Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, is the patron saint of converts, difficult marriages and divorced people, as well as empresses.36 Rowling has said that the names of her characters are tremendously important, some having as many as 8 or 9 before she got it right.37 With Helena, all her bases are covered: Snape could be considered a convert, as he switched sides; it seems apparent after Order of the Phoenix that Eileen’s marriage to Tobias was no picnic; and Eileen herself was a Prince which corresponds to the royal connotations. St. Helena is almost always represented in art wearing a crown and/or a cross because she was famous for going to Palestine in search of the True Cross of Jesus, which she supposedly helped find.38 In Half-Blood Prince, in the only photo Hermione finds of Eileen, she is described as “simultaneously cross and sullen.” 39 Quite a lot of work to manage to get a cross in there, but kudos to Rowling for doing it.
St. Helena’s husband left her for someone he thought would make a more successful match, but her son stayed loyal to her. When he became Emperor, “Constantine made up for the neglect his father paid to St. Helena, ordering all honor be paid to the mother of the sovereign.” 40 Helena was also rumored to be the daughter of an English prince, but it seems to have been proven false.41 Constantine himself was crowned Emperor at York, which many readers believe is the general area of Spinner’s End.42 This theory is based on the fact that there are two villages called Snape in England, one in Suffolk and one in North Yorkshire, only 40 miles from York. Rowling did say Snape “is the name of a place in England.” 43 One doesn’t have to necessarily believe in such a fine end for our former potions master to wonder why Eileen is so very similar to St. Helena. I think her son’s devotion to her would be especially fitting for someone like Snape. We know he was loved by someone.44 Does he not have a face only a mother could love?
Vulture or Augurey?
Another small point of interest is the fact that Madam Pince is described as “vulture-like.” There are two ways of looking at this. In the Egyptian pantheon of gods, the mother goddess was Mut (or Maut). She was represented as a “woman with wings or as a vulture wearing the crowns of royalty.” 45 Her role led to the word for mother in Egyptian being her very own name: mwt. The griffon vulture was associated with royalty.46 So with the vulture we have a link to both royalty (Prince) and motherhood.
But perhaps more significantly, there is, in Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, an animal that is also vulture-like: the Augurey bird, also referred to as an Irish Phoenix.
A thin and mournful-looking bird, somewhat like a small and underfed vulture in appearance, the Augurey is greenish black. It is intensely shy, nests in brambles and thorn, eats large insects and fairies, flies only in heavy rain, and otherwise remains hidden in its tear-shaped nest. . . . Augurey feathers are useless as quills because they repel ink.47
I find this creature a perfect blend of what we know about Madam Pince and Eileen Prince. It’s thin, which describes both of them; “underfed vulture” 48 has been used exactly to describe Madam Pince; mournful looking, which matches Eileen who was described as sullen; Irish like the name Eileen; remaining hidden as Irma stays in her library; except in heavy rain, which could refer to Dumbledore’s funeral in which a rain of tears could be seen – the one and only time Irma Pince has ever been seen outside of the library; feathers that repel ink suits both the librarian Irma and possibly the Gobstones captain Eileen, as Gobstones squirt a disgusting liquid when you lose a point.49 It seems highly unlikely that an animal that Rowling invented, unlike say the Hippogriff or the Sphinx, would so perfectly match two totally different characters.
I would actually wager that this creature is Snape’s patronus. Snape appears to have been attached to his mother based on the fact that he calls himself the Half-Blood Prince. We know so little about his home life, that even something so small feels fairly significant. More than halfway though the sixth of seven books would appear to be an unusual time to introduce a character that will not have any relevance to the story. It would have been more difficult to convince the readers of Snape’s duplicity if we had already suspected his mother was in the castle. Dumbledore hires many outcasts – the unhirable like Lupin and Snape, those in need of protection like Trelawney, his friends who owe him a favor like Mad-Eye Moody. The theories about her reasons for being in the castle would have been increased greatly knowing she was Snape’s mother. I believe that just like Harry's patronus is the animagus form of his father James, like St. James – the patron of alchemists50 – Snape might have his patronus be an animal linked to his mother, Eileen – as in St. Helena, patron of converts. If I am correct about Snape’s feelings towards his mother, it would only be right that she would be represented as the patronus: a protector inspired by happy thoughts. Rowling refused to answer what either Snape’s patronus or boggart are as “it would give so much away.” 51 I think the answer to both lies with Madam Pince.
If the creature is Snape’s patronus, it actually gives away a significant amount of information. It looks like a vulture, perhaps that is what other Order members believe it to be. Both vultures and the Augurey have negative associations and yet, in the end have positive aspects. Just that it is a phoenix opens many possibilities of rebirth and renewal. Perhaps it also would hint to where Snape’s loyalties lie, knowing he has any sort of phoenix as a patronus, considering how closely Dumbledore is associated with phoenixes, in both his patronus and with Fawkes.
Madam Pince is escorted by Argus Filch to Dumbledore’s funeral – her first foray outside of the Hogwarts library known to us – wearing a “thick black veil that fell to her knees.” 52 Is she really more upset about Dumbledore’s death than any of the other staff, or does she have a secondary reason? Perhaps her son has just fled with the suspicion of murder upon him. Snape obviously has a very dangerous time ahead of him, maybe never to return. Any mother would be distraught. We last saw Madam Pince behind a veil that would fit with the phoenix part of the Augurey’s name, both in that Augureys keep to themselves and that the phoenix is reborn. Eileen Prince, possibly presumed dead, might return from behind the veil, so to speak, and make her appearance in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows.
Information for Harry
Harry is going to have his hands full in this final book: searching for the remaining Horcruxes and defeating Voldemort. But he also has a side agenda at the moment, and that is his desire for vengeance against Severus Snape. If Irma Pince is indeed Eileen, she may have information for Harry on both counts: there is no doubt that Hermione will make use of the library again at some point, whether for remedies or information about the founders, and Harry may just need to be confronted with something this concrete to be able to change his opinion of Snape.
It is also possible that up to now Harry wouldn’t have differentiated between Prince and Pince on his Marauder’s Map, or even noticed it as there are so very many people at any given time displayed on the map. Now, if he were to go back to Hogwarts, he might make the connection between Eileen and Irma.
We haven’t learned yet what exactly caused Snape to return to Dumbledore’s side. There have been hints: something about the interpretation of the prophecy, perhaps remorse over what he had done in causing the Potters to be targets of Voldemort, maybe even pertaining to the life-debt he owed James. In Half-Blood Prince, Dumbledore gives a fair idea of how he handles a situation such as Draco Malfoy’s. Draco is at a turning point in his relationship with Voldemort. Up to now, Draco has only seen the advantages that Voldemort brings: power, purity of blood, and access to the Dark Arts. However, once he has been given his own task, he realizes the danger inherent in the association and fears for himself as well as his parents. He feels he has no choice but to do the Dark Lord’s bidding.
Dumbledore offers to hide Draco “more completely than you can possibly imagine.” 53 He even extends the offer to Narcissa. But Draco refuses the offer. What might have happened if he accepted it? I think we have our answer with Snape and Madam Pince. Snape was a few years older than Draco, who was still a student when Dumbledore approached him. Snape also seems to have been the one who went to Dumbledore and offered to spy for the Order. But I think, with the offer to Draco, we have the possible suggestion that Dumbledore might have hidden Eileen for Snape so that Voldemort wouldn’t go after his family after his desertion. And this is why Dumbledore was so sure of Snape. This isn’t to suggest some sort of blackmail on Dumbledore’s part. It was just his insurance policy.
Snape carries a lot of guilt. I believe that more than Harry or Dumbledore, it’s his mother he wants to makes amends with. One major difference between Snape and Madam Pince is regarding the writing in the margins of Advanced Potions Making. Madam Pince is absolutely beside herself when she finds Harry with the textbook, assuming he is committing a crime most foul in writing in a book. I don’t think she could recognize the handwriting or the book, as she didn’t get a very good look at it. I think that illustrates how Snape was as a youth. There are many teenagers who dye their hair or get a tattoo just because their parents would be appalled. Even though he took her name for his nickname, Snape may well have blamed his mother for their situation while at the same time, being proud of his magical heritage. Furthermore, he seems to have held a significant grudge against his father. Snape writing in his mother’s book symbolizes the lengths to which he rebelled against his parents’ wishes. His rebellion culminates with his becoming a Death Eater, when he had his Muggle father to bias him against Muggles perhaps, similar to Voldemort in that regard. It’s just a small picture of the mindset he had as a teenager. Once a person becomes an adult, they often see their parents in a different light.
With Draco, we’ve also seen what Voldemort does with his new charges. All of the Malfoys are threatened if Draco fails. Surely, as a new Death Eater, Snape may have had a similar task. Succeed or pay the consequences. So even if Eileen wasn’t the perfect Molly Weasley sort of mother to Snape, I suspect that, if she were threatened, it would attract Snape’s attention rather quickly. And for those who don’t believe Snape had entirely altruistic reasons for joining the side of the light, this makes perfect sense. But for Dumbledore, this show of love on Snape’s part would be important. Why is Snape’s mother significant to the story of Harry Potter? There is something that separates Severus Snape from Lord Voldemort. That’s why Eileen Prince makes her way into the story. To understand Snape, we need to know his heart. That’s why Snape accepted Dumbledore’s offer of protection for her. That’s why Dumbledore had complete confidence in Snape’s motivation: Love.
1. Rowling, Half-Blood Prince, 307.
2. Ibid., 549.
3. Ibid., Chamber of Secrets, 314.
4. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 537-9, 637.
5. Ibid., J.K. Rowling Official Site, “Title of Book Six: The Truth.”
6. Cuarón, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.
7. Rowling, Sorcerer’s Stone, 198.
8. Ibid., 198, 262.
9. Ibid., Chamber of Secrets, 143.
10. Ibid., 144.
11. Ibid., 145.
12. Ibid., 163-64.
13. Ibid., 164.
14. Ibid., Quidditch Through the Ages, vii.
15. Ibid., Goblet of Fire, 467-78.
16. Ibid., Goblet of Fire, 488-9.
17. Ibid., Order of the Phoenix, 650.
18. Ibid., 649.
19. Ibid., 655.
20. Ibid., 656.
21. Ibid., Order of the Phoenix, 655; Sorcerer’s Stone, 288.
22. Ibid., Quidditch Through the Ages, vii; Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, i; Sorcerer’s Stone, 299.
23. Ibid., Sorcerer's Stone, 198; Chamber of Secrets 193.
24. Ibid., Sorcerer's Stone, 126.
25. Ibid., Chamber of Secrets, 163.
26. Ibid., Order of the Phoenix, 85.
27. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 307.
28. Ibid., Sorcerer’s Stone, 269.
29. Ibid., Half-Blood Prince, 308.
30. Ibid., Interview by Christopher Lydon.
31. Thinkbabynames.com, “Irma - Name Meaning and Origin.”; 20000-names, “Female ‘I’ Names.” N.B. Interestingly enough “Imma” and “Ima” are also variants of Irma in low German.
32. Rowling, Half-Blood Prince, 549.
33. Ibid., 592.
34. 123-baby-names, “The name origin and meaning of Helen.”
35. 20000-names, “Female ‘E’ Names.”
36. Jones, Patron Saints Index, “Helena.”
37. Rowling, Interview by Christopher Lydon.
38. Kirsch, “St. Helena.”
39. Rowling, Half-Blood Prince, 537.
40. Saints Alive!, “St. Constantine, and his mother, St. Helen.”
41. Kirsch, “St. Helena.”
42. Wikipedia, s.v. “Constantine the Great.”; This essay argues that Spinner’s End is not located in Yorkshire; however, it does support the idea that some readers do believe it to be there: http://www.hp-lexicon.org/essays/essay-spinners-end.html#yorkshire.
43. Rowling, eToys interview.
44. Anelli and Spartz, “TLC/MN interview Part Three.”
45. Seawright, “Mut, Mother Goddess of the New Kingdom, Wife of Amen, Vulture Goddess.”
47. Rowling, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, 2.
48. Ibid., Chamber of Secrets, 163.
49. Ibid., Prisoner of Azkaban, 50.
50. Rowling, World Book Day Chat.
51. Merton, “Nicholas Flamel: The Immortal French Alchemist.”
52. Rowling, Half-Blood Prince, 640.
53. Rowling, Half-Blood Prince, 592.Bibliography
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